Typology dating archaeology
For a long period in the 20th century Egyptian and Near Eastern chronology seemed to be the earliest of absolute chronologies, and imports from these areas were used to reconstruct the chronology of European prehistory.
With the introduction of objective quantifiable methods such as dendrochronology and Carbon-14 dating, over the past half century, European and North American archaeology have developed independent and more reliable chronologies, that often make it possible to date more precisely than in Egypt. For Egypt absolute year dates can only be established back to the beginning of the Late Period, from links to Greek chronology, and then from Assyrian king-lists and other Near Eastern sources, back to the Ramesside Period (still debated). The Egyptians dated by the year of reign of the king on the throne (for example 'year 3 of king X').
After the 'death' of these organic materials the Carbon-14 atoms decay. Therefore it is possible to measure the number of these atoms in organic materials to obtain quantified information on the date of an item.
The method has a margin of accuracy of several hundred years and it is therefore not useful to fix dates in historic periods, but very useful for prehistory (in Egypt before 3000 BC).
The annual rings vary in size, depending on the weather conditions in each region, but they are similar for all trees of the same area.
If the sequence of rings is know for a certain area it is possible to fit in all new woods found and to date them very precisely.
In Egyptology the method was first used by Petrie for dating the Naqada period, from the development of the so-called wavy-handled pottery.
However, we do not even know the number of kings for all periods, and there is also the possibility that reigns overlapped by coregency or in times of political disunity.Generally, each stratum is isolated in a separate chronological unit that incorporates artifacts.